Tag Archives: research

Goethe’s theory of colour

Goethe’s theory of colour – Applied by Maria schindler


foreword – “Colours should not be studied theoretically but under the living conditions where they make their appearances.”


“The general cultural life of mankind arises through the individual work of geniuses whether they express themselves through poetry, drama, philosophy, or any of the arts and sciences…….. They are timeless, and no national barriers can limit their universal beneficence. History records again and again what sacrifices have been made to rescue and preserve those thaw ere in danger of being forgotten…..

In years to come we shall still need them all, for the rebuilding of our faith in the reality of human progress.”


‘The method described in this book is based on the fact that ‘man is inherently creative’ and that to live a balanced life this creativeness must be given a chance to develop. In one way or another this holds good for any human being in whatever social condition he may live and whatever occupation he may follow.”


pg 3 ” In modern cities however, the colourless begins to predominate.More and more we seem to live in a world that is grey. The conditions of our technical civilisation warn us that there is a gradual elimination of the general feeling for colour.”


pg 5 ” The trust great impulse in misdirection was given by Neutrons explanation of their appearance in the prism, that they are the result of the splitting up of white light into its component parts.”


pg 50 ” Now not only does the eye answer to colour with colour but it also reacts to light with darkness and to darkness with light.”


pg 65 – 66 ‘inharmonious’ combinations

“.yellow and orange. It is difficult to suggest a form for these two colours. There is so ugh light in them that they seem to spread themselves out and stream away. but after some concentration one finds them fascinating because of their very elusiveness and their cheerful effect.

. orange and red. Both colours are excessively active. They can be magnificent when they appear side by side and together rule the field of vision, but without the softening influence of any other colours they are too irritating.

. Red and violet. Produce a strong but sombre picture, having power and severity. Important and weighty things can be expressed with these colours. With their dignifies beauty and intensity they can make one feel strong.

. Violet and blue. Are easy to manipulate into forms. The softening of the blue receives warmth from the red in the violet. Something of longing, and of in wardens. One feels in a dream – like mood.

. Blue and green. These can produce a picture of nature wherein there is no place for man. We feel dissatisfied and strange in the presence of these colours.

.Green and yellow. We abandon the sub-terrestrial mood that belongs o the green and the blue. New life begins to predominate more.”

With reading this book nothing but the pure expression of rolling my eyes.  I couldn’t quote most of this book because the expression used throughout some would call passion through colours and art i would just say what are you on about.??? Colours are colours yes they do represent certain feelings that have evolved through experiences and time, but the way this book is sheer embarrassment to read. I simply will not read any further as the person who wrote simply needs to get out a bit more either that or calm down on the medication. Theres a limit to passion on  subjects where you just come across needy and desperate to have your thought out there, when lets face it your talking about colour. Colour which is perceived different from each individual, so there can never really be just one perception on one colour.


Applying psychology to imprisonment

Applying psychology to imprisonment – theory and practice – Edited by Barry J McGurk, David M Thornton and Mark Williams.

pg 30 statement of theory

“Briefly and concisely, the theory tries to explain the occurrence of socialised behaviour  suggesting that anti – social behaviour, being obviously egocentric and orientated towards immediate gratification, needs no explanation. It is suggested that the socialisation process is essentially mediated by pavlovian conditioning, in the sense that anti social behaviour will be punished by parents, teachers, peers etc., and that such or execution of such behaviour constitutes the unconditioned stimulus.”


If our moral behaviour all relies on good and bad and what punishment we would receive for bad behaviour, society never really evolves it just grows abiding by law. Not o the extreme version of bad behaviour such as murder etc.. all that is standard common sense of knowledge that it is bad behaviour. But the ever so less how one should act in society, should one refrain from being oneself just so we fit in with a social setting. What if the social environment was then to thrive on good and bad behaviour indulging in the sins for all to see who is then to say what moral standards we should abide by. If  majority ideas are the ones we evolve our society on  then its time to change majorities perception on social environments and behaviour within them.

The applied psychologist


The applied psychologist – James Hartley – Alan Branthwaite.


Pg 22 “Our ego is a major preoccupation for us all. We are very attached to it. We want to strengthen it, rather than diminish it or lose it. One of the main ways we build and strengthen our ego is through roles we adopt and the power and authority invested in them. These give us status, standing, an identity, respect and so on.”


Pg 80 “In studying and analyzing consumers and the effects of advertising, psychologists draw widely from studies and theories of perception, emotion, decision making, language, social influence and cultural experience.”


Pg 80 “What is it that advertising seeks to influence and change in consumers that will affect their choices of products? From psychological studies of human thinking and actions, certain principles (if not law) have emerged which have shaped our approach to understanding consumer behavior, and how to influence it. For example it is accepted that:


.Individual, social and situation factors interest in determining behavior.

. Attitudes and actions are influenced by an individuals subjective interpretation rather than objective reality.

. Differences in ideas, attitudes and preferences arise out of the development of individuals and their past experiences – nothing occurs in location but in the context of what is going on now and what has gone before.

. Unconscious factors as well as rational considerations affect consumer choices.


These principles can be contrasted with the approaches arising from other disciplines, such as economics, that emphasize rational decision making and objective financial forces…”


“Central to the psychological approach(thought at times controversial) has been the principle that the causes of behavior are not always conscious or rational, but are influenced by unconscious associations, memories and wishes. This principle has usually been aligned with Freudian psychology, but it is fundamental to explanation in other areas, such as cognition. For example workon attention and experimental demonstrations of subliminal perception also show that stimuli are processed unconsciously in the first instance and then, depending on their significance, transferred to higher levels of consciousness for further processing. In subliminal perception research, words are presented without awareness by displaying them very briefly, or by speaking quietly through earphones against a background of white noise to mask the sound. It has been found that words, which are not consciously perceived, can colour the conscious perception of other objects or events. In one experiment, the mood and imagery evoked by music were change by words presented subliminally at the same time. In other research using different techniques, emotionally loaded words presented without awareness affected both self-reported feelings and physiological measures of anxiety……

Deliberate subliminal advertising is banned, but the subliminal perception of images and sounds occurs all the time……..

Background music subconsciously alters the perception of ads and the interpretation of the messages about the product.”


Pg 82 “The intuitive level of thinking involves those hard to articulate associations, perceptions and feelings that colour our impressions about objects, ideas, people and events,”


“This kind of intuitive thought is exhibited in dreams where images are personal symbols for the objects being dreamt about, in much the same way as images are used in poetry to expand the meaning and attach particular connotations to ideas.”


Pg 84  Thoughtful, rationally considered, manfully analyzed – Deliberator (conscious)


Past experience, learning, knowledge – interpreter (pre – conscious)


Sensory perception – visual, auditory images – recorder (non-conscious iconic storage)


“There are two distinct ways of processing information and experiences at the higher levels of cognitive perception: episodic knowing and semantic knowing.

Episodic knowing relates to the processing of everyday experiences, such as what we had for breakfast this morning and if we saw it on t.v.. Episodic knowing is experimental and autobiographical as it relates to direct, individual experience…..

Episodic knowing specializes in visual and special processing (faces, places, pictures) and records everyday experiences as meaningful events, images and symbols.”


Pg 85 “Sematic knowing is about knowledge ‘facts’ and ‘truths’, that are abstract and generalized. Semantic knowing is learnt and more deeply processed. It is rational and held in the front of concepts and propositions.”

“Semantic processing deals not with the observable properties of objects (their, colour, shape etc.) but with their abstract attributes and characteristics (their uses and ‘inner’ qualities such as whether they are edible, fragile, fashionable).It is used in the perception of verbal information, either spoken or as text.”


Pg 197 what is theory?

“At first glance psychology appears to have a well developed theatrical base…….however, the discipline is fragmented into several competing philosophical positions with ‘ an advances of theories and minimal consensual knowledge”.


“The first type of theory involves guesses or presumptions. These can be predictive (i.e. something will happen), but either way they involve speculation and require additional data for confirmation.

The second usage of term theory relates to models that employ hypothetical constructs to explain observed data. For example, many psychological theories invoke hypothetical variables to account for observed data (e.g. the concept of ‘memory’ was developed to explain how past experiences change current and future behavior – it is hypothetical because it is not directly accessible, but must be inferred from observations……”


This research was interesting when put with designing a controlled environment. Psychological effects on consumer perception and behavior is a necessary when designing a space that has to be manipulated for most success with the public.

If you can change peoples perception on products that they consume can you not change peoples perception on moral values within a social environment.?

moral philosophy

Moral philosophy – D.D.Raphael


“what is moral philosophy?”

‘Every society and every cultural group tends to accept without question a number of disbeliefs. These are taken for granted, instilled in the young as part of their education, and presupposed in the process of forming further ideas.’


“ In modern societies most people accept without question that ‘seeing is believing’, that perception by the senses is the most reliable kind of evidence there is . Philosophy asks us to examine such assumptions, to consider whether we have a good reason to follow them. If we find that we have, then we may continue to hold the beliefs, but now with rational assurance instead of unthinking acceptance. If we find that we do not have good reasons, then we should either suspend judgment or seek a new framework off belief.”


Pg 2 “different societies had different customs and different systems of law; they were thereby led to query the natural assumption that the rules of ones own society are sacrosanct, of divine origin and absolutely valid.”


Pg 3 “major movements in philosophy arise in this way apparent conflict between different beliefs. Philosophy examines critically the assumptions and arguments that have buttressed the opposing beliefs, it asks: ‘ why should we believe this? Have we any good reason to do so? Is that a good reason? What is good or sound reasoning?’ Critical evaluation may end up negatively, with septicism ‘we do not have reason to believe this’; or positively, we reconstruction.’ We have good reason, provided that we understand the belief in such a way.”


Pg 6 “Their rationality lies in two things, the requirement of consistency and the pursuit of truth. Consistency is a matter of conformity to relevant facts and is tested by observation.

In their practice philosophy and science differ in the relative emphasis given to the two aspects of rationality. Philosophy puts more emphasis on the use of logic because philosophers, unlike scientists, are not in a position to concentrate on the observation of a special field of knowledge. “


Pg 8 “Moral philosophy is philosophical inquiry about norm or values, about ideas of right and wrong, good and bad, what should and what should not be done.”


“Aesthetics (the philosophy of beauty and art) does not fit easily into either of the two divisions. Aesthetics seems akin to ethics since both inquire into judgments of value rather than judgments of fact, but the notions which aesthetics examines are at least much concerned with contemplation as with practice.”


Pg 9 “Some people use the term ‘moral philosophy as synomous with ‘ethics’, the philosophical discussion of assumptions about right and wrong, good and bad, considered as general ideas and as applied in the private life of individuals. In the history of the subject term has been used more widely to cover also the discussion of normative ideas (i.ie. ideas of value or of what ought to be done) in organized social life as well as in private relationships. In particular it has included political and legal philosophy.”


“If I have come to doubt moral beliefs which I previously took for granted, and if I therefore ask whether there are good reasons for or against acceptance. I seriously want to know what I should believe about right and wrong. To ask in the face of conflicity codes of conduct, whether there is a good reason to accept one and reject the rest, is virtually to ask which, if any, is really right, that would come pretty close to showing how we ought to behave.”


Pg 10 “ So do not expect moral philosophy to solve the practical problems of life or to be a crutch on which you can learn. A study of philosophy makes it more necessary, not less, to stand on your own feet, to be self critical and to be obliged to choose for yourself. It makes you more rational, more responsible, more of a human being.”


Pg 12 “ What sort of observation would serve the same purpose for testing moral beliefs? We do not see or touch rightness or wrongness. We do not reach our moral beliefs from evidence of the senses.

No, but perhaps we reach them from the evidence of a different kind of experience, the experience of feeling or emotion. We have feelings of approval for some actions and states of affairs, feelings of disapproval for others. The same sort of thing applies to aesthetic judgments. When we judge that Beethoven’s fifth symphony, or a sunset, is beautiful we do not hear the beauty of the one or see the beauty of the other. We hear the sounds of the symphony and we see the colours of the sunset; but we feel aesthetically moved. So perhaps we should say we feel morally moved when we observe an act of kindness or on of cruelty.”


Pg 13 “ Does ‘normal vision’ hare simply mean the kind of vision possessed by most observers? Is it a question of numbers? Is it the reaction of majority taken to be ‘objective’ just because they are a majority?”


Pg 18 “ In the theory of knowledge, a philosophical rationalist holds that genuine knowledge is acquired by reason and is a matter of necessary truth.”


Pg 22 “When two moral principles conflict in a single situation, one of them has to give way.”


Pg 34 “ What is the standard of morals? What is it that makes right action right? One answer to this question is given by utilitarianism. It is an attractive view and is deservedly popular. According to utilitarianism, an action is right if it is useful for promoting happiness. Happiness the theory explains is a sum of pleasures. Pleasure is good and pain or displeasure is bad.”


Pg 42 “ It is a forward – looking doctrine, justifying things by reference to the future, and so it seems clearly to be a progressive policy. No wonder that it captures the imagination as a most attractive moral philosophy.”


Pg 66 “ This is a suggested psychological explanation of the way in which people do decide between a conflict of claims and why different individuals decide differently. (It also sketches an explanation of why ties of special personal relationship count for so much in ethics, a point which was not covered by a simple reading of the principle of ends.it does not propose a criterion of how we should decide, I do not think it is possible to provide that; there is no right answer for the resolution of a moral dilemma. But at least the explanation shows that the decision is not just a blind leap in the dark. It depends upon the moral factors of imagination and sympathetic feeling.”


Pg 67 “At first sight, politics seems quite opposed to the spirit of ethics. The keynote of ethics is altruism, while politics is more hard-boiled; politics has to reckon with the predominance of the self interest in human nature and exemplifies this in the behavior of politicians think of their objectives in ethical terms – the public interest, social justice, freedom from oppression or freedom from want. The relative emphasis, which a political party gives to some of these ideas, defines its political stance. Even though its actions are often motivated by less high flown sentiments.”


Pg 68 “ Every society needs some sort of structure to be maintained, and every reflective society needs some sort of concept concerning that structure. Justice is the basic concept of social value; it is what holds a society together. But since every society consists of individual persons, there is bound to be tension between social cohesion and the feelings of independence and separate identity experienced by every individual human being.”


Pg 69 “ But the law also has a progressive or reformative aspect, statutes (laws made by the legislature) change the rules in accordance with new ideas of what is fair and proper.”


Pg 85 “ The common sense idea is that freedom is the absence of restraint on doing as you wish. But this, says the philosophical idealist, means acting from desire, and to act from desire is not a good thing. The good things to do what is morally right and to act from sense or duty.”


Pg 115 “ethics is a product of evolution”


“ The first suggestion is that our moral capacities (conscience) and our moral ideas have evolved by a process which is part of the general process of evolution…….By (conscience) is meant the capacity of human beings to make moral judgments which can then motivate action.”


Pg 124 “ we must accept the direction of evolution as good simply because it is good according to any realistic definition of that concept. We defined ethical principles as actual psychological compulsions derived from the experience of the nature of society; we stated that the nature of society is such that, in general, it develops in a certain direction; then the ethical principles which mediate the motion in that direction are in fact those adopted by that society (science and ethics(1942),pg18).”


Moral philosophy has some good methods on why do we behave the way do? Who decided what is right and wrong? And should these decisions come from majority what if we went of the lesser majority ?

Would social behavior evolve for better or worse?

investigating abnormal behaviour

Investigating abnormal behavior – Edgar Miller – Stephen Morley


PG 8  – “For convenience, definitions of abnormality can be considered under three main headings which constitute the statistical, departure from cultural norms and subjective definitions.”


“ Statistical definition – The average level, or a range about the average, is the regarded as normal and the extremes are defined as abnormal. An immediate question is how deviant from the population mean an individual needs to be to be considered abnormal?

Any chosen cut off point is necessarily arbitrary, assuming a continuous variation in the characteristic under consideration, although it is possible to b more sophisticated and have degrees of abnormality.”


PG 9 – “ Departure from the cultural norm – Views as to what is considered abnormal also vary within cultures over time. Within a quarter of a century, views about the nature of homosexuality have changed very considerably and it is now generally not considered to be “abnormal” in the sense that it once was. Homosexuality also illustrates the arbitrariness of ideas as to what is deviation from norm to ideal.”


“ Subjective definitions – Peoples subjective impressions of what is abnormal and undesirable obviously overlap appreciably with the other two criteria but this overlap is by no means perfect.”


PG 23 – “ To summarize, the position adopted here is that any complete account of abnormal behavior needs to take into account explanations at levels other than the purely psychological. It must be recognized that psychological abnormalities do have social aspects on the one hand just as they have physiological and biochemical aspects on the other. The general approach which contrasts the ‘medical model’ on one side with explanations in terms of social processes, such as labeling on the other, is really drawing a false antithesis as thought these things were necessarily incompatible. Factors at a number of different levels may be important and the extent to which they are significant or offer a casual mechanism in any given context is a matter for empirical investigation rather than ideological argument.”


PG 103 – “ There is a general assumption based on common sense reasoning that psychological disturbances can be produced as a reaction to environmental stresses. Popular arguments have sometimes had it that the increase in the rate of psychiatric consultation that has taken place in recent decades is a consequence of the stresses and strains of modern living. This latter argument is based on two assumptions, both of which are open to question – the first of these is that the increase in psychiatric consultation reflects a true gain in morbidity as opposed to a greater willingness amongst those afflicted to come forward and seek help. The second assumption as that such things as the potential horror of nuclear war and worldwide devastation make life today more stressful than it was decades or centuries ago despite the fact that modern life also cushions people against other sources of stress that operated in the past.

It is not the purpose to analyze the reasons for the change in consultation rates overtime. The present concern is with whether psychological distress or disorder can result from stress brought about by adverse circumstances. In fact with the example of bereavement and its consequent grief in mind it would be very hard to argue that distress could not result from adverse life events. The question at issue is therefore more properly whether psychological distress or disorder of the kinds that could be considered to constitute psychiatric conditions can result from social and environmental occurrences.


PG 151 – “ The main features of behavior therapy”

‘ In contrast to both analytic and humanistic psychotherapies behavior therapy places little emphasis on the personal qualities of the therapist and the form of the relationship that he establishes with the client/patient. At its most extreme the relationship might be regarded as having no therapeutic properties of its own. The therapist is merely a means of conveying information to the patient.’


PG 152 – “ The therapist will focus on antecedent and consequent event in relation to the problem behavior and on features that may modify their effects such as mood or the presence of others. This description then becomes the basis for developing treatment plans.

The behavior therapist is directly concerned with the symptom or problem behavior rather than the ‘ personality’ of the client. Therapy aims to modify the symptoms and not to change the clients personality………… If emphasizes the variability of behavior over situations and the critical role of environmental events in determining behavior. This position is not entirely universal and one well-known promulgator of behavior therapy also supports a trait theory of personality.

This view of behavior and personality also determines the kinds of measure behavior therapists use to evaluate their work. They emphasize direct measures of behavior like role play test.


PG 154 – “ Cognitive therapists and theorists make strong assumptions about the relevance of cognitive activity in controlling behavior. They back these assumptions with interventions, which are specifically aimed at the reconstruction of the person’s cognitive activity. The main contemporary exponents of cognitive therapy all share the following assumptions to some degree (Marzillier,1980;Morley)

. A persons feelings and behavior can only be understood if one takes into account their cognitive activities. These cognitive activities mediate between the events in the person’s environment and the response which the person makes to these events. For example, Ellis (1979) has a simple mnemonic which characterizes this basic assumption. His ABC model proposes that the emotional and behavioral consequences (c) of an activating event (A) are determined by the person’s mediating beliefs (B) about the event.

. Cognitive therapists assume that people

with behavioral and emotional disorders  have essentially faulty cognitive activities. The processes by which they extract and assimilate information from their environments are either distorted or malfunctioning.


Literature review:

This book has a great insight into psychology and all the psychological behaviors and treatments, where as this book is designed for learning about psychological disorders and how to treat and understand them, there are snippets within this book, which can be used to refer back to my design process. To create an environment where behavior is manipulated through design I must first understand behavior symptoms and why we behave the way we do.

This book gave great insight into that you cannot change a person’s personality their personality will remain within any circumstance; you have to manipulate the environment for which makes them behave. Its all about the relationship between a one person and their environment.

One question when reading this is why do we behave upon what population decides, this meaning are social society behaves upon morals of right and wrong from what he larger popularity agrees upon, but who decided that population is right and abnormality has the wrong opinion, perhaps that is todays problems with society we need to tackle to the undecided guidelines between population and moral beliefs. Times and laws change so rapidly its time design moved on and brought social values forward.

jac scott

A member of the royal british society of sculptors.

Frequently asked questions
I regularly receive enquiries from students who are interested in my work, but I do not always have time to assist students in their studies.  The following is a selection of answers, to frequently asked questions, about my practice and is included on the website to help enquirers.

  • Which subjects most interest you?

I am drawn to universal issues which have a political and social value.  Levels of consumption of natural resources, food and material possessions are indicators of a society’s status and value and therefore are particularly intriguing. I have also investigated; image and identity issues in office environments (see ‘Office Politics Collection’), rites of passage (see ‘Barbie keeps her appointment with Womanhood’ Tullie House Museum commission), ethnic cleansing (refer Bankfield Museum response) and war (see Barrow schools memorial commission).

  • Which perspective do you adopt when dealing with difficult environmental issues?

The dialogue I intend with an audience is open-ended for I am not wishing to deliver a polemic or one that is morally redeeming. My perspective is one of a curious mind reflecting what is observed: a world without a sense of equilibrium.

  • What are the most difficult aspects of your practice?

I struggle with the concept of making more stuff in an already over-stuffed world. Material objects have a value that I recognize but those that just ‘sit’ seem superfluous, so part of me is anti-thing. Yet tangibility is seductive and often leads to an intriguing creative journey that I relish making this paradox difficult to reconcile.

  • Do you think titles are an important aspect of your work?

Titling the work is an important stage, to me as it starts to open up the private discourse to others. The balance of how much to reveal and ‘explain’ weighted against intimacy and abstraction.

  • Is involving humour in your work important?

Humour is a useful communication tool and it is often employed to connect with an audience.  Many of the issues I engage with are sensitive and political and therefore careful handling is particularly necessary. Sometimes blatant and sometimes more obscure, I find employing wit and humour a delight that enlivens and imbues the work with a sense of the ridiculous that reflects the human condition.

  • How do you measure success in your work?

I measure success in two ways.
My work feels like a series of conversations. Initially it is a private dialogue with the issue – where I explore through research and questioning what I know, what I learn, what I feel, what I want to say and how I want to say it and finally in which media and medium I want to use.  Success at this stage is intuitive.
Secondly, if the conversation is expanded, by being invited to share the work with others, I gauge success by observing stimulating interactions, debate, motivation and reaction in the audience.

For example, by influencing the way people perceive waste, a difference can be made to the problem.  Evaluation reports and surveys about the residencies, workshops and exhibitions have assessed their impact to be powerful and sustaining.  The participants in the Personal Baggage project were all surveyed to assess their experiences and the individual value of the project.  Most felt better informed about waste, and valued the opportunity to express themselves to others, which they hoped would in turn make other communities feel different about the subject.  (For more information refer to Residencies pages – Personal Baggage and follow the link www.copelandbc.gov.uk/personalbaggage )

  • A significant amount of time in your practice is spent as a mediator.  How do you manage this within your practice?

Over the years the role as a mediator has grown until it is now an important part of my practice.  For an artist the role of mediator has different demands whether I work with organisations or individuals.  Entering the domain of an organisation or community, as a creative filter, is a privileged position.  The engagement necessitates that a respectful dialogue is developed and nurtured.
For example, in Personal Baggage the liaison between industry and the community of Distington was challenging.  The activities devised were there to let the villagers have a voice about living with landfill and other people’s rubbish.  The workshops engaged all sectors of the community and the responses were wide ranging and reflective of the situation.  The aim was not only to let the community air their views but also to let their neighbours in Copeland and Allerdale boroughs consider the impact that their waste habits had on others.  The exhibition toured around the council areas in locations that were accessible to a wide range of the public.  Venues included; village halls, civic halls, heritage centers and schools.  Local groups and schools were invited to visit the exhibition and engage through a series of talks and workshops held at the exhibition venues.  Visitors were surveyed and an evaluation document was produced which measured the impact on visitors. .  (For more information refer to Residencies pages – Personal Baggage, and follow the link www.copelandbc.gov.uk/personalbaggage )

  • Why do you often choose to work with waste material?

The creation of beautiful objects is not the goal of my practice.  Materials that have had a previous life I find to be the most creatively challenging as it is the journey of transformation that keeps me stimulated.  It often calms my conscience about creating more ‘stuff’ as it seems less invasive than utilising virgin stock.

  • Do you find that you are drawn to a particular material?

There is not a palette of materials that I adopt repeatedly, but instead materials are selected as appropriate to address the issue.  Consequently, no type of material is excluded for consideration – the palette to date includes compost, old plastic, recycled and scrap metal, discarded foam, scrap cardboard and paper, wood scraps, discarded textiles and recycled glass.

  • Are there any problems in working with waste materials?

Working with old materials presents many problems and developing ways of managing and overcoming these has become essential.  Firstly, an expectation that the finished work should be perfect is unrealistic because the materials are usually damaged, soiled and irregular.  Source and supply is a major challenge, especially for work which employs multiples of materials.  For example, in the chesterfield sofa for ‘Wasted’, “Are you sitting comfortably?” 15,000 old plastic carrier bags were sorted through in order to find 10,000 suitable to use.  Negotiations were made with Safeway supermarket in order to collect enough old bags left by customers.  (For more information refer to Residencies pages – Wasted)

  • Which aspect of the waste problem most interests you?

The reluctance of acceptance of a personal responsibility by the individual, for their own waste, is an issue that particularly intrigues me.  This is a major facet of the waste problem.  We all toil to purchase possessions then tire of them so easily and bizarrely bury them in the ground!  Ironically, in the end we are all buried in the earth.

  • Do you enjoy working on collaborative projects?

I happily embrace the notion of working collaboratively on projects and often choose to engage other artists in order to add another dynamic to the work. The interaction can work on many levels and is often invigorating and challenging.

For example I have a lead artist role with several Creative Partnerships schools where my philosophy of reaping the manifold benefits of incorporating other art forms into projects is practiced.  (For more information refer to ‘Projects and Residencies’ pages or for more information about Creative Partnerships follow link www.creative-partnerships.com ).

  • Why did you decide to write a book about sculpture?

The rationale for researching and writing ‘Textile Perspectives in Mixed-Media Sculpture’ arose out of a personal requirement for a distillation of thought that sought to situate my practice in the world of contemporary art.  The nature of most artists is to resist categorisation and it is only those outside the immediate practicing circle that demand, for their own convenience, a naming of what artists do and in what context they practice.  Knowing that my own idiom balanced on the interface of sculpture and textile art – the opportunity to research a book presented a way to not only discover other practitioners who were also in this position, but also to give precious time to contextualising the work in a wider discourse.
The absence of any publication that discussed these crossovers further awakened my interest to investigate and document a burgeoning area of art.  (For more information about my book refer to Publication pages and visit www.crowood.com )

  • Stroke association 2010 – life after a stroke art club project – leading a group looking at expressing themselves through a wide range of artistic media after suffering a stroke. Focus on drawing and painting with some experimental work in clay and plaster.
  • Youth Re:action team 2006-2009 – the idea of regeneration init a wildest sense is embraced in projects focusing on both inner and outer worlds that individual experience through reflective and tangible means. This manifests in dynamic interfaces between different age and aspiration groups.
  • Creative partner ships-
  • 2009-10 Dowdales school,dalton, cumbria
  • 2010 Henshaw first school and whitfield first school, Northumberland
  • 2008-10 Caldew lea primary school, Carlisle
  • 2008-09 viewpoint project,penington primary school, ulverston
  • -2008 Montreal primary C of E school
  • -Lead creative, creative [artneships cumbria 2005-07 regeneration projects
  • creative partnership north and south Tyneside health initiative 2007-07

Jac has been invalid with many more projects, reading through she should be proud of her achievements and how much she has helped other but as a designer her business dent really inspire me or motivate me to knowing how to go about making a career out of my design skills.

regeneration for the next generation


out of place



By Karin Nelson
Photograph by Hannah Whitaker
November 2011

ALEX ZACHARY’S GARDEN-LEVEL GALLERY on Manhattan’s East 77th Street, just off Fifth Avenue, is not, as one would expect by its address, an elegant space. “It’s hideous,” Zachary admits. “Everything about it is wrong.” But for the 28-year-old former staffer at Gavin Brown’s Enterprise, who has a slightly twisted take on the art world, it’s a fitting home. When he decided almost two years ago to buck the market’s downward trend and open his own place in the least hip area he could think of—the posh Upper East Side—“the goal was to find something out of place,” he explains. “Because we would be out of place.” Thus, the oddly configured, outdated duplex, formerly owned by furniture importer and consultant George Beylerian. In the late Seventies, it was considered a pillar of chic, regularly profiled in design magazines. “It looked really good,” Zachary says. “It looks significantly less good now.”

Deciding not to touch a thing (“I don’t know where you’d even begin,” he says), Zachary has let the space dictate the shows, which have tended toward the unconventional: Ken Okiishi’s 72-­minute film pitting images of contemporary Berlin against Woody Allen’s Manhattan; Rainer Ganahl’s interviews with Jewish New Yorkers who escaped World War II; Amelie von Wulffen’s watercolors of fruits and vegetables fornicating. He recently exhibited the paintings of Mark van Yetter, a young Istanbul-­based artist who once ran a record shop in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. In February, Zachary plans an exhibit of new work by Lutz Bacher, a West Coast appropriation artist who had a retrospective at MoMA PS1 in 2009. “Most shows would look better elsewhere,” he concedes, “so you have to think about the kinds of work to which this space adds value.”