Category Archives: dissertation

The unconscious before freud

The unconscious before freud – Lancelot Law Whyte

pg 3 ” The history of ideas – human understanding is new. Until recent times in the history of this planet, say a hundred thousand years ago or less, there was no talking, no writing, and no thinking, in a human sense. Elaborate methods of communication, perhaps a human version of the dance language of the bees, must already have existed, but there was no articulated speech, no recording of experience in art or script, no stabilisation of thought in unit ideas.”

pg 12 “All human comprehension, whether it be intuitive understanding or scientific explanation, or any blend of these, rests on knowledge with two complementary aspects:

accuracy of detailed facts (precision); correct arrangement of these into comprehensive generalisations (order).”

pg 15 “Ideas are not discovered once and for all and passed on like museum objects. They are part of the life of thought and must come to life, be kept alive, and be made productive in the processes of human minds and the activities of individuals. The same ideas, or similar ones, may have to be independently rediscovered over and over again by isolated thinkers, some o whom may never communicate their thoughts, while others may have spoken but not been understood or produced any recorded response, and finally by still others who bring the idea to full life, not only in their own minds but in a professional or social community.”

pg 17 “‘nature is no party to our phraseology.’ certainly the terms”conscious,””unconscious,””subconscious,” and “preconscious” though valuable, are not entirely satisfactory. ”


pg 29 “The impatience to order has here led to disorder.”


pg 59 ” Self-conscious man thinks he thinks. this has long ben recognised to be an error, for the conscious subject who thinks he thinks is not the same as the organ which does the thinking. The conscious person is one component only, a series of transitory aspects, of the thinking person. This misinterpretation led to extraordinary achievements and strange embarrassments. To the first because it gave the individual a sense of his independence, poet, and responsibility;…”


pg 186 ” 1. the problem of life: What contrasted forms of order distinguish animate and inanimate phenomena? What is the nature of biological organisation and its relation to physical laws, either known or still to be discovered? How sharp is the foundry?

It would seem that until a general theory of (or method of approach to) order and disorder in complex systems of various kinds has been established, theoretical science cannot come to grips with the “problem of life”, since this appears to involve ordered transformations in complex systems. Current theories of protein and nucleic acid structure, etc,… provide no suggestions of how differentiated processes are coordinated spatially and temporally within living systems.

2. The general problem of “mind”: What is the structure characteristic of “mental processes”? What aspects of these enter direct awareness? How should types of awareness be classified?

It may be possible to identify, within the wider class of organic processes, a category of mental processes which can either be observed externally as physiological phenomena, or known subjectively.”Mental” may be defined as referring to those “dominant ordering processes in which traces of individual experience are ordered and tend to order thought and behaviour.” But this is ambiguous since the meaning and uniqueness of “dominance” has still to be determined.

If “finality”(the property of proceeding toward a terminus) is accepted as a characteristic of mental processes, and if mind is taken to be part of nature, then the general laws which determine the processes of the mind must themselves be finalistic.

3. The problem of man: Wherin is man unique? In what respects, if at all, does he escape the restrictive conditions of all other organisms? Are any universally valid biological principles irrelevant to man? How far do the contrasted methods of the various sciences apply to man?

Most centuries have had their own answers to these or similar questions. Certainly biology is not in a position to claim finality for any current answers. Homo may be distinguished by his use of tools, mastery of fire or size of brain; Homo sapiens perhaps by his ability to draw, to speak, to write, to read, or to think step-by-step about one thing at a time. For our own species seems to be marked by the cerebral faculty to form new communicable units of thought. But here we are still ignorant, and surprise are likely.

4. The problem of human conscious: What is the role of human “awareness” and “self awareness” and which mental processes are necessarily unconscious?

5. The problem of “reason”: Has the term “reason” a useful meaning today? If so, what is its relation to other mental faculties?

It is not easy to give this term a single, acceptable meaning. To call reason “the guiding principle of the human mind” merely conceals our ignorance as to what this principle is.”Logical reasoning” would restrict it to the highly specialised operations of deductive logic and calculation. “The ordering process of the human brain mind” might be a useful interpretation, but this process is largely unconscious.

6.the problem of disorder in the human mind: if man is an organic species, and the brain-mind a differentiated organ, why have human thought and behaviour lost the perfect coordination of structures and functions which rev ails in organisms that survive?

The easy answer is: he lost it through the original sin (or some genetic misfortune), and he will not survive.

Another is: man passed through a historical discontinuity and thus acquired freedom of choice; he has thereby moved outside the biologic; realm of organic order. Bu t this cannot be the correct answer since animals continually select between alternatives without frustrating hesitation, damaging conflict, or permanent disorder.

Another possible answer is that man’s fifty thousand years or more as a stabilised specie have not been enough; that he is a not-yet-adapted species:that he still has to complete the exploitation of his hereditary species potentialities in an adequate social tradition ordering both thought within the individual, and individuals within the race; and that a mature characteristically human organic-social order lies ahead, if he can survive the transitional lack of adaptation.

This is a dreamy hypothesis of an ultimate stationary adaption. but it has been suggested that the most rapid known evolution of a new adapted animal species has required about half a million years, certainly much more than homo sapiens has yet had. And if our species can already explore cosmic time and space with its instruments why worry if it possibly needs a mere thousand generations or so more to realise its organic potentialities, mentally and socially? For this is the only human ideal that can be universally accepted forever:…..

7. The problem of the “depths” of the human mind: What is the meaning of “depth” psychology? how far is the human psyche an autonomous part of the human system, with obscure “abysses” of its own?

The term “depth” psychology confuses the issue by combing two contrasted meanings: hidden far from direct awareness, and therefore accessible only by difficult procedure; and concerned with highly general tendencies underlying all differentiated and all conscious activities……..

8. The problem of personal coordination:In spite of the prevalence of clash, and of the still inescapable disorder in the hum a mind and tradition,scan each person at times experience in himself the harmonious cooperation of the differentiated functions and faculties? Can each person directly experience the fact and the operation of “organic coordination”?

I believe that this experience is not merely possible but frequent:in joy in living, when  self-awareness is replaced by aesthetic participation. Without this positive core life would be unbearable.”




Evolutionary social psychology

Evolutionary social psychology edited by Jeffry A. Simpson – Douglas T.Kenrick


pg 2/3 –  “Reasons for ignoring evolutionary social psychology …….

. Genes cannot influence complex human behaviour.

Social and evolutionary psychology

.Evolutionary explanations imply genetic determinism and ignore the role of the environment.

.Culture is more important than( and independent of) evolved psychological mechanisms.

. Social psychologists can ignore evolutionary explanations because the latter are at a different level of analysis.

. Evolutionary principles are relevant only to a narrow range of phenomena in social psychology.

.Evolutionary models provide explanations that are merely common sense, post hoc, or untestable.

pg 11 – ” Many patterns of social behaviour are very difficult to explain using traditional social models, but they make more sense wen viewed from an evolutionary perspective. We have already discussed a number of cross-cultural regularities in social behaviour that are difficult to explain solely in terms of the impact of “american culture” or idiosyncratic societal rules, expectations, or norms.”


pg 21 – “when i look at my friend who is your enemy, i see a person quite different from the person you see. My image of you, also, is quite different from your image of yourself. Wherein lies the truth, or is it all socially constructed illusion?”


“Research in social psychology has revealed that when we encounter other people, we immediately and automatically classify them as in-group or out-group, and this categorisation strutter our subsequent perceptions of them.”


pg 28 – The adaptive functions of negative illusions

“As demonstrated earlier, people tend to perceive out-group members through dark-coloured lenses.”They” are all alike; “they” are bad; and “they” are bent on exploiting or destroying us. In projecting hostile intentions onto our enemies and in characterising their negative behaviours in abstract terms that imply high stability, we feel justified in exploiting them. In viewing our enemies as dissimilar to us, we move them outside out domain of empathy.”


pg 30 – “Happiness – the sad truth is that life can be very cruel. People get raped, injured, betrayed, and murdered every day. From the perspective of evolution life is not, in fact, as fair or as meaningful as most people assume……..philosophers such as Becker and Camus discussed the dilemma of humans faced with the meaningless and absurdity of their existence and the inevitability of death.”



Goethe’s theory of colour

Goethe’s theory of colour – Applied by Maria schindler


foreword – “Colours should not be studied theoretically but under the living conditions where they make their appearances.”


“The general cultural life of mankind arises through the individual work of geniuses whether they express themselves through poetry, drama, philosophy, or any of the arts and sciences…….. They are timeless, and no national barriers can limit their universal beneficence. History records again and again what sacrifices have been made to rescue and preserve those thaw ere in danger of being forgotten…..

In years to come we shall still need them all, for the rebuilding of our faith in the reality of human progress.”


‘The method described in this book is based on the fact that ‘man is inherently creative’ and that to live a balanced life this creativeness must be given a chance to develop. In one way or another this holds good for any human being in whatever social condition he may live and whatever occupation he may follow.”


pg 3 ” In modern cities however, the colourless begins to predominate.More and more we seem to live in a world that is grey. The conditions of our technical civilisation warn us that there is a gradual elimination of the general feeling for colour.”


pg 5 ” The trust great impulse in misdirection was given by Neutrons explanation of their appearance in the prism, that they are the result of the splitting up of white light into its component parts.”


pg 50 ” Now not only does the eye answer to colour with colour but it also reacts to light with darkness and to darkness with light.”


pg 65 – 66 ‘inharmonious’ combinations

“.yellow and orange. It is difficult to suggest a form for these two colours. There is so ugh light in them that they seem to spread themselves out and stream away. but after some concentration one finds them fascinating because of their very elusiveness and their cheerful effect.

. orange and red. Both colours are excessively active. They can be magnificent when they appear side by side and together rule the field of vision, but without the softening influence of any other colours they are too irritating.

. Red and violet. Produce a strong but sombre picture, having power and severity. Important and weighty things can be expressed with these colours. With their dignifies beauty and intensity they can make one feel strong.

. Violet and blue. Are easy to manipulate into forms. The softening of the blue receives warmth from the red in the violet. Something of longing, and of in wardens. One feels in a dream – like mood.

. Blue and green. These can produce a picture of nature wherein there is no place for man. We feel dissatisfied and strange in the presence of these colours.

.Green and yellow. We abandon the sub-terrestrial mood that belongs o the green and the blue. New life begins to predominate more.”

With reading this book nothing but the pure expression of rolling my eyes.  I couldn’t quote most of this book because the expression used throughout some would call passion through colours and art i would just say what are you on about.??? Colours are colours yes they do represent certain feelings that have evolved through experiences and time, but the way this book is sheer embarrassment to read. I simply will not read any further as the person who wrote simply needs to get out a bit more either that or calm down on the medication. Theres a limit to passion on  subjects where you just come across needy and desperate to have your thought out there, when lets face it your talking about colour. Colour which is perceived different from each individual, so there can never really be just one perception on one colour.

Applying psychology to imprisonment

Applying psychology to imprisonment – theory and practice – Edited by Barry J McGurk, David M Thornton and Mark Williams.

pg 30 statement of theory

“Briefly and concisely, the theory tries to explain the occurrence of socialised behaviour  suggesting that anti – social behaviour, being obviously egocentric and orientated towards immediate gratification, needs no explanation. It is suggested that the socialisation process is essentially mediated by pavlovian conditioning, in the sense that anti social behaviour will be punished by parents, teachers, peers etc., and that such or execution of such behaviour constitutes the unconditioned stimulus.”


If our moral behaviour all relies on good and bad and what punishment we would receive for bad behaviour, society never really evolves it just grows abiding by law. Not o the extreme version of bad behaviour such as murder etc.. all that is standard common sense of knowledge that it is bad behaviour. But the ever so less how one should act in society, should one refrain from being oneself just so we fit in with a social setting. What if the social environment was then to thrive on good and bad behaviour indulging in the sins for all to see who is then to say what moral standards we should abide by. If  majority ideas are the ones we evolve our society on  then its time to change majorities perception on social environments and behaviour within them.

The applied psychologist


The applied psychologist – James Hartley – Alan Branthwaite.


Pg 22 “Our ego is a major preoccupation for us all. We are very attached to it. We want to strengthen it, rather than diminish it or lose it. One of the main ways we build and strengthen our ego is through roles we adopt and the power and authority invested in them. These give us status, standing, an identity, respect and so on.”


Pg 80 “In studying and analyzing consumers and the effects of advertising, psychologists draw widely from studies and theories of perception, emotion, decision making, language, social influence and cultural experience.”


Pg 80 “What is it that advertising seeks to influence and change in consumers that will affect their choices of products? From psychological studies of human thinking and actions, certain principles (if not law) have emerged which have shaped our approach to understanding consumer behavior, and how to influence it. For example it is accepted that:


.Individual, social and situation factors interest in determining behavior.

. Attitudes and actions are influenced by an individuals subjective interpretation rather than objective reality.

. Differences in ideas, attitudes and preferences arise out of the development of individuals and their past experiences – nothing occurs in location but in the context of what is going on now and what has gone before.

. Unconscious factors as well as rational considerations affect consumer choices.


These principles can be contrasted with the approaches arising from other disciplines, such as economics, that emphasize rational decision making and objective financial forces…”


“Central to the psychological approach(thought at times controversial) has been the principle that the causes of behavior are not always conscious or rational, but are influenced by unconscious associations, memories and wishes. This principle has usually been aligned with Freudian psychology, but it is fundamental to explanation in other areas, such as cognition. For example workon attention and experimental demonstrations of subliminal perception also show that stimuli are processed unconsciously in the first instance and then, depending on their significance, transferred to higher levels of consciousness for further processing. In subliminal perception research, words are presented without awareness by displaying them very briefly, or by speaking quietly through earphones against a background of white noise to mask the sound. It has been found that words, which are not consciously perceived, can colour the conscious perception of other objects or events. In one experiment, the mood and imagery evoked by music were change by words presented subliminally at the same time. In other research using different techniques, emotionally loaded words presented without awareness affected both self-reported feelings and physiological measures of anxiety……

Deliberate subliminal advertising is banned, but the subliminal perception of images and sounds occurs all the time……..

Background music subconsciously alters the perception of ads and the interpretation of the messages about the product.”


Pg 82 “The intuitive level of thinking involves those hard to articulate associations, perceptions and feelings that colour our impressions about objects, ideas, people and events,”


“This kind of intuitive thought is exhibited in dreams where images are personal symbols for the objects being dreamt about, in much the same way as images are used in poetry to expand the meaning and attach particular connotations to ideas.”


Pg 84  Thoughtful, rationally considered, manfully analyzed – Deliberator (conscious)


Past experience, learning, knowledge – interpreter (pre – conscious)


Sensory perception – visual, auditory images – recorder (non-conscious iconic storage)


“There are two distinct ways of processing information and experiences at the higher levels of cognitive perception: episodic knowing and semantic knowing.

Episodic knowing relates to the processing of everyday experiences, such as what we had for breakfast this morning and if we saw it on t.v.. Episodic knowing is experimental and autobiographical as it relates to direct, individual experience…..

Episodic knowing specializes in visual and special processing (faces, places, pictures) and records everyday experiences as meaningful events, images and symbols.”


Pg 85 “Sematic knowing is about knowledge ‘facts’ and ‘truths’, that are abstract and generalized. Semantic knowing is learnt and more deeply processed. It is rational and held in the front of concepts and propositions.”

“Semantic processing deals not with the observable properties of objects (their, colour, shape etc.) but with their abstract attributes and characteristics (their uses and ‘inner’ qualities such as whether they are edible, fragile, fashionable).It is used in the perception of verbal information, either spoken or as text.”


Pg 197 what is theory?

“At first glance psychology appears to have a well developed theatrical base…….however, the discipline is fragmented into several competing philosophical positions with ‘ an advances of theories and minimal consensual knowledge”.


“The first type of theory involves guesses or presumptions. These can be predictive (i.e. something will happen), but either way they involve speculation and require additional data for confirmation.

The second usage of term theory relates to models that employ hypothetical constructs to explain observed data. For example, many psychological theories invoke hypothetical variables to account for observed data (e.g. the concept of ‘memory’ was developed to explain how past experiences change current and future behavior – it is hypothetical because it is not directly accessible, but must be inferred from observations……”


This research was interesting when put with designing a controlled environment. Psychological effects on consumer perception and behavior is a necessary when designing a space that has to be manipulated for most success with the public.

If you can change peoples perception on products that they consume can you not change peoples perception on moral values within a social environment.?

moral philosophy

Moral philosophy – D.D.Raphael


“what is moral philosophy?”

‘Every society and every cultural group tends to accept without question a number of disbeliefs. These are taken for granted, instilled in the young as part of their education, and presupposed in the process of forming further ideas.’


“ In modern societies most people accept without question that ‘seeing is believing’, that perception by the senses is the most reliable kind of evidence there is . Philosophy asks us to examine such assumptions, to consider whether we have a good reason to follow them. If we find that we have, then we may continue to hold the beliefs, but now with rational assurance instead of unthinking acceptance. If we find that we do not have good reasons, then we should either suspend judgment or seek a new framework off belief.”


Pg 2 “different societies had different customs and different systems of law; they were thereby led to query the natural assumption that the rules of ones own society are sacrosanct, of divine origin and absolutely valid.”


Pg 3 “major movements in philosophy arise in this way apparent conflict between different beliefs. Philosophy examines critically the assumptions and arguments that have buttressed the opposing beliefs, it asks: ‘ why should we believe this? Have we any good reason to do so? Is that a good reason? What is good or sound reasoning?’ Critical evaluation may end up negatively, with septicism ‘we do not have reason to believe this’; or positively, we reconstruction.’ We have good reason, provided that we understand the belief in such a way.”


Pg 6 “Their rationality lies in two things, the requirement of consistency and the pursuit of truth. Consistency is a matter of conformity to relevant facts and is tested by observation.

In their practice philosophy and science differ in the relative emphasis given to the two aspects of rationality. Philosophy puts more emphasis on the use of logic because philosophers, unlike scientists, are not in a position to concentrate on the observation of a special field of knowledge. “


Pg 8 “Moral philosophy is philosophical inquiry about norm or values, about ideas of right and wrong, good and bad, what should and what should not be done.”


“Aesthetics (the philosophy of beauty and art) does not fit easily into either of the two divisions. Aesthetics seems akin to ethics since both inquire into judgments of value rather than judgments of fact, but the notions which aesthetics examines are at least much concerned with contemplation as with practice.”


Pg 9 “Some people use the term ‘moral philosophy as synomous with ‘ethics’, the philosophical discussion of assumptions about right and wrong, good and bad, considered as general ideas and as applied in the private life of individuals. In the history of the subject term has been used more widely to cover also the discussion of normative ideas ( ideas of value or of what ought to be done) in organized social life as well as in private relationships. In particular it has included political and legal philosophy.”


“If I have come to doubt moral beliefs which I previously took for granted, and if I therefore ask whether there are good reasons for or against acceptance. I seriously want to know what I should believe about right and wrong. To ask in the face of conflicity codes of conduct, whether there is a good reason to accept one and reject the rest, is virtually to ask which, if any, is really right, that would come pretty close to showing how we ought to behave.”


Pg 10 “ So do not expect moral philosophy to solve the practical problems of life or to be a crutch on which you can learn. A study of philosophy makes it more necessary, not less, to stand on your own feet, to be self critical and to be obliged to choose for yourself. It makes you more rational, more responsible, more of a human being.”


Pg 12 “ What sort of observation would serve the same purpose for testing moral beliefs? We do not see or touch rightness or wrongness. We do not reach our moral beliefs from evidence of the senses.

No, but perhaps we reach them from the evidence of a different kind of experience, the experience of feeling or emotion. We have feelings of approval for some actions and states of affairs, feelings of disapproval for others. The same sort of thing applies to aesthetic judgments. When we judge that Beethoven’s fifth symphony, or a sunset, is beautiful we do not hear the beauty of the one or see the beauty of the other. We hear the sounds of the symphony and we see the colours of the sunset; but we feel aesthetically moved. So perhaps we should say we feel morally moved when we observe an act of kindness or on of cruelty.”


Pg 13 “ Does ‘normal vision’ hare simply mean the kind of vision possessed by most observers? Is it a question of numbers? Is it the reaction of majority taken to be ‘objective’ just because they are a majority?”


Pg 18 “ In the theory of knowledge, a philosophical rationalist holds that genuine knowledge is acquired by reason and is a matter of necessary truth.”


Pg 22 “When two moral principles conflict in a single situation, one of them has to give way.”


Pg 34 “ What is the standard of morals? What is it that makes right action right? One answer to this question is given by utilitarianism. It is an attractive view and is deservedly popular. According to utilitarianism, an action is right if it is useful for promoting happiness. Happiness the theory explains is a sum of pleasures. Pleasure is good and pain or displeasure is bad.”


Pg 42 “ It is a forward – looking doctrine, justifying things by reference to the future, and so it seems clearly to be a progressive policy. No wonder that it captures the imagination as a most attractive moral philosophy.”


Pg 66 “ This is a suggested psychological explanation of the way in which people do decide between a conflict of claims and why different individuals decide differently. (It also sketches an explanation of why ties of special personal relationship count for so much in ethics, a point which was not covered by a simple reading of the principle of does not propose a criterion of how we should decide, I do not think it is possible to provide that; there is no right answer for the resolution of a moral dilemma. But at least the explanation shows that the decision is not just a blind leap in the dark. It depends upon the moral factors of imagination and sympathetic feeling.”


Pg 67 “At first sight, politics seems quite opposed to the spirit of ethics. The keynote of ethics is altruism, while politics is more hard-boiled; politics has to reckon with the predominance of the self interest in human nature and exemplifies this in the behavior of politicians think of their objectives in ethical terms – the public interest, social justice, freedom from oppression or freedom from want. The relative emphasis, which a political party gives to some of these ideas, defines its political stance. Even though its actions are often motivated by less high flown sentiments.”


Pg 68 “ Every society needs some sort of structure to be maintained, and every reflective society needs some sort of concept concerning that structure. Justice is the basic concept of social value; it is what holds a society together. But since every society consists of individual persons, there is bound to be tension between social cohesion and the feelings of independence and separate identity experienced by every individual human being.”


Pg 69 “ But the law also has a progressive or reformative aspect, statutes (laws made by the legislature) change the rules in accordance with new ideas of what is fair and proper.”


Pg 85 “ The common sense idea is that freedom is the absence of restraint on doing as you wish. But this, says the philosophical idealist, means acting from desire, and to act from desire is not a good thing. The good things to do what is morally right and to act from sense or duty.”


Pg 115 “ethics is a product of evolution”


“ The first suggestion is that our moral capacities (conscience) and our moral ideas have evolved by a process which is part of the general process of evolution…….By (conscience) is meant the capacity of human beings to make moral judgments which can then motivate action.”


Pg 124 “ we must accept the direction of evolution as good simply because it is good according to any realistic definition of that concept. We defined ethical principles as actual psychological compulsions derived from the experience of the nature of society; we stated that the nature of society is such that, in general, it develops in a certain direction; then the ethical principles which mediate the motion in that direction are in fact those adopted by that society (science and ethics(1942),pg18).”


Moral philosophy has some good methods on why do we behave the way do? Who decided what is right and wrong? And should these decisions come from majority what if we went of the lesser majority ?

Would social behavior evolve for better or worse?

investigating abnormal behaviour

Investigating abnormal behavior – Edgar Miller – Stephen Morley


PG 8  – “For convenience, definitions of abnormality can be considered under three main headings which constitute the statistical, departure from cultural norms and subjective definitions.”


“ Statistical definition – The average level, or a range about the average, is the regarded as normal and the extremes are defined as abnormal. An immediate question is how deviant from the population mean an individual needs to be to be considered abnormal?

Any chosen cut off point is necessarily arbitrary, assuming a continuous variation in the characteristic under consideration, although it is possible to b more sophisticated and have degrees of abnormality.”


PG 9 – “ Departure from the cultural norm – Views as to what is considered abnormal also vary within cultures over time. Within a quarter of a century, views about the nature of homosexuality have changed very considerably and it is now generally not considered to be “abnormal” in the sense that it once was. Homosexuality also illustrates the arbitrariness of ideas as to what is deviation from norm to ideal.”


“ Subjective definitions – Peoples subjective impressions of what is abnormal and undesirable obviously overlap appreciably with the other two criteria but this overlap is by no means perfect.”


PG 23 – “ To summarize, the position adopted here is that any complete account of abnormal behavior needs to take into account explanations at levels other than the purely psychological. It must be recognized that psychological abnormalities do have social aspects on the one hand just as they have physiological and biochemical aspects on the other. The general approach which contrasts the ‘medical model’ on one side with explanations in terms of social processes, such as labeling on the other, is really drawing a false antithesis as thought these things were necessarily incompatible. Factors at a number of different levels may be important and the extent to which they are significant or offer a casual mechanism in any given context is a matter for empirical investigation rather than ideological argument.”


PG 103 – “ There is a general assumption based on common sense reasoning that psychological disturbances can be produced as a reaction to environmental stresses. Popular arguments have sometimes had it that the increase in the rate of psychiatric consultation that has taken place in recent decades is a consequence of the stresses and strains of modern living. This latter argument is based on two assumptions, both of which are open to question – the first of these is that the increase in psychiatric consultation reflects a true gain in morbidity as opposed to a greater willingness amongst those afflicted to come forward and seek help. The second assumption as that such things as the potential horror of nuclear war and worldwide devastation make life today more stressful than it was decades or centuries ago despite the fact that modern life also cushions people against other sources of stress that operated in the past.

It is not the purpose to analyze the reasons for the change in consultation rates overtime. The present concern is with whether psychological distress or disorder can result from stress brought about by adverse circumstances. In fact with the example of bereavement and its consequent grief in mind it would be very hard to argue that distress could not result from adverse life events. The question at issue is therefore more properly whether psychological distress or disorder of the kinds that could be considered to constitute psychiatric conditions can result from social and environmental occurrences.


PG 151 – “ The main features of behavior therapy”

‘ In contrast to both analytic and humanistic psychotherapies behavior therapy places little emphasis on the personal qualities of the therapist and the form of the relationship that he establishes with the client/patient. At its most extreme the relationship might be regarded as having no therapeutic properties of its own. The therapist is merely a means of conveying information to the patient.’


PG 152 – “ The therapist will focus on antecedent and consequent event in relation to the problem behavior and on features that may modify their effects such as mood or the presence of others. This description then becomes the basis for developing treatment plans.

The behavior therapist is directly concerned with the symptom or problem behavior rather than the ‘ personality’ of the client. Therapy aims to modify the symptoms and not to change the clients personality………… If emphasizes the variability of behavior over situations and the critical role of environmental events in determining behavior. This position is not entirely universal and one well-known promulgator of behavior therapy also supports a trait theory of personality.

This view of behavior and personality also determines the kinds of measure behavior therapists use to evaluate their work. They emphasize direct measures of behavior like role play test.


PG 154 – “ Cognitive therapists and theorists make strong assumptions about the relevance of cognitive activity in controlling behavior. They back these assumptions with interventions, which are specifically aimed at the reconstruction of the person’s cognitive activity. The main contemporary exponents of cognitive therapy all share the following assumptions to some degree (Marzillier,1980;Morley)

. A persons feelings and behavior can only be understood if one takes into account their cognitive activities. These cognitive activities mediate between the events in the person’s environment and the response which the person makes to these events. For example, Ellis (1979) has a simple mnemonic which characterizes this basic assumption. His ABC model proposes that the emotional and behavioral consequences (c) of an activating event (A) are determined by the person’s mediating beliefs (B) about the event.

. Cognitive therapists assume that people

with behavioral and emotional disorders  have essentially faulty cognitive activities. The processes by which they extract and assimilate information from their environments are either distorted or malfunctioning.


Literature review:

This book has a great insight into psychology and all the psychological behaviors and treatments, where as this book is designed for learning about psychological disorders and how to treat and understand them, there are snippets within this book, which can be used to refer back to my design process. To create an environment where behavior is manipulated through design I must first understand behavior symptoms and why we behave the way we do.

This book gave great insight into that you cannot change a person’s personality their personality will remain within any circumstance; you have to manipulate the environment for which makes them behave. Its all about the relationship between a one person and their environment.

One question when reading this is why do we behave upon what population decides, this meaning are social society behaves upon morals of right and wrong from what he larger popularity agrees upon, but who decided that population is right and abnormality has the wrong opinion, perhaps that is todays problems with society we need to tackle to the undecided guidelines between population and moral beliefs. Times and laws change so rapidly its time design moved on and brought social values forward.