Monthly Archives: January 2012

Kurt Schwitters

Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German painter who was born in Hanover, Germany.

Schwitters worked in several genres and media, including DadaConstructivismSurrealism, poetry, sound, painting, sculpture, graphic designtypography and what came to be known as installation art. He is most famous for his collages, called Merz Pictures.


Alongside his collages, Schwitters also dramatically altered the interiors of a number of spaces throughout his life. The most famous was The Merzbau, the transformation of six (or possibly more) rooms of the family house in Hannover, Waldhausenstrasse 5. This took place very gradually; work started in about 1923, the first room was finished in 1933, and Schwitters subsequently extended the Merzbau to other areas of the house until he fled to Norway in early 1937. Most of the house was let to tenants, so that the final extent of the Merzbau was less than is normally assumed. On the evidence of Schwitters’ correspondence, by 1937 it had spread to two rooms of his parents’ apartment on ground floor, the adjoining balcony, the space below the balcony, one or two rooms of the attic and possibly part of the cellar. In 1943 it was destroyed in a bombing raid.

Early photos show the Merzbau with a grotto-like surface and various columns and sculptures, possibly referring to similar pieces by Dadaists, including the Great Plasto-Dio-Dada-Drama by Johannes Baader, shown at the first International Dada Fair, Berlin, 1920. Work by Hannah Höch, Raoul Hausmann and Sophie Tauber, amongst others, were incorporated into the fabric of the installation. By 1933, it had been transformed into a sculptural environment, and three photos from this year show a series of angled surfaces aggressively protruding into a room painted largely in white, with a series of tableaux spread across the surfaces. In his essay ‘Ich und meine Ziele’ in Merz 21, Schwitters referred to the first column of his work as the Cathedral Of Erotic Misery. There is no evidence that he used this name after 1930, however. The first use of the word ‘Merzbau’ occurs in 1933.

Photos of the Merzbau were reproduced in the journal of the Paris-based group abstraction-création in 1933-4, and were exhibited in MoMA in New York in late 1936.

The Sprengel Museum in Hanover has a reconstruction of the first room of the ‘Merzbau.[22]

Schwitters later created a similar environment in the garden of his house in Lysaker, near Oslo, known as the Haus am Bakken (the house on the slope). This was almost complete when Schwitters left Norway for England in 1940. It burnt down in 1951 and no photos survive. The last Merzbau, in Elterwater, Cumbria, England, remained incomplete on Schwitters’ death in January 1948. A further environment that also served as living space can still be seen on the island of Hjertoya near Molde, Norway. It is sometimes described as a fourth Merzbau, although Schwitters himself only ever referred to three.


cultural revolution of art

African art

Rock paintings and engravings are Africa’s oldest continuously practiced art form. Depictions of elegant human figures, richly hued animals, and figures combining human and animal features—called therianthropes and associated with shamanism—continue to inspire admiration for their sophistication, energy, and direct, powerful forms. The apparent universality of these images is deceptive; content and style range widely over the African continent. Nevertheless, African rock art can be divided into three broad geographical zones—southern, central, and northern. The art of each of these zones is distinctive and easily recognizable, even to an untrained eye.

The Linton Panel.
Image courtesy of the South African Museum, Cape Town.
This rock painting was extricated from a shelter in the Drakensberg Mountains and currently resides in the South African Museum, Cape Town. Its images of antelopes and humans have been interpreted as evocations of Khoisan trance experiences. Beautifully rendered in subtle tones of red and white, this is among the most famous South African rock paintings. Although its date of execution is not known, it is estimated to have been painted sometime during the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries A.D.


American art

Abstract Expressionism developed in the context of diverse, overlapping sources and inspirations. Many of the young artists had made their start in the 1930s. The Great Depression yielded two popular art movements, Regionalism and Social Realism, neither of which satisfied this group of artists’ desire to find a content rich with meaning and redolent of social responsibility, yet free of provincialism and explicit politics. But it was the exposure to and assimilation of European modernism that set the stage for the most advanced American art. There were several venues in New York for seeing avant-garde art from Europe. The Museum of Modern Art had opened in 1929, and there artists saw a rapidly growing collection acquired by director Alfred H. Barr, Jr. They were also exposed to groundbreaking temporary exhibitions of new work, including Cubism and Abstract Art (1936), Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism (1936–37), and retrospectives of Matisse, Léger, andPicasso, among others. Another forum for viewing the most advanced art was Albert Gallatin’s Museum of Living Art, which was housed at New York University from 1927 to 1943. There the Abstract Expressionists saw the work of Mondrian, Gabo, El Lissitzky, and others. The forerunner of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum—the Museum of Non-Objective Painting—opened in 1939. Even prior to that date, its collection of Kandinskys had been publicly exhibited several times. The lessons of European modernism were also disseminated through teaching. The German expatriate Hans Hofmann (1880–1966) became the most influential teacher of modern art in the United States, and his impact reached both artists and critics.

Early Work
Early on, the Abstract Expressionists, in seeking a timeless and powerful subject matter, turned to primitive myth and archaic art for inspiration. Rothko, Pollock, Motherwell, Gottlieb, Newman, and Baziotes all looked to ancient or primitive cultures for expression. Their early works feature pictographic and biomorphic elements transformed into personal code. Jungian psychology was compelling too, in its assertion of the collective unconscious. Directness of expression was paramount, best achieved through lack of premeditation. In a famous letter to the New York Times(June 1943), Gottlieb and Rothko, with the assistance of Newman, wrote: “To us, art is an adventure into an unknown world of the imagination which is fancy-free and violently opposed to common sense. There is no such thing as a good painting about nothing. We assert that the subject is critical.”

Mature Abstract Expressionism: Gesture
In 1947, Pollock developed a radical new technique, pouring and dripping thinned paint onto raw canvas laid on the ground (instead of traditional methods of painting in which pigment is applied by brush to primed, stretched canvas positioned on an easel). The paintings were entirely nonobjective. In their subject matter (or seeming lack of one), scale (huge), and technique (no brush, no stretcher bars, no easel), the works were shocking to many viewers. De Kooning, too, was developing his own version of a highly charged, gestural style, alternating between abstract work and powerful iconic figurative images. Other colleagues, including Krasner and Kline, were equally engaged in creating an art of dynamic gesture in which every inch of a picture is fully charged. For Abstract Expressionists, the authenticity or value of a work lay in its directness and immediacy of expression. A painting is meant to be a revelation of the artist’s authentic identity. The gesture, the artist’s “signature,” is evidence of the actual process of the work’s creation. It is in reference to this aspect of the work that critic Harold Rosenberg coined the term “action painting” in 1952: “At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act—rather than as a space in which to reproduce, re-design, analyze, or ‘express’ an object, actual or imagined. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event.”

Mature Abstract Expressionism: Color Field
Another path lay in the expressive potential of color. Rothko, Newman, and Still, for instance, created art based on simplified, large-format, color-dominated fields. The impulse was, in general, reflective and cerebral, with pictorial means simplified in order to create a kind of elemental impact. Rothko and Newman, among others, spoke of a goal to achieve the “sublime” rather than the “beautiful,” harkening back to Edmund Burke in a drive for the grand, heroic vision in opposition to a calming or comforting effect. Newman described his reductivism as one means of “… freeing ourselves of the obsolete props of an outmoded and antiquated legend … freeing ourselves from the impediments of memory, association, nostalgia, legend, and myth that have been the devices of Western European painting.” For Rothko, his glowing, soft-edged rectangles of luminescent color should provoke in viewers a quasi-religious experience, even eliciting tears. As with Pollock and the others, scale contributed to the meaning. For the time, the works were vast in scale. And they were meant to be seen in relatively close environments, so that the viewer was virtually enveloped by the experience of confronting the work. Rothko said, “I paint big to be intimate.” The notion is toward the personal (authentic expression of the individual) rather than the grandiose.

The Aftermath
The first generation of Abstract Expressionism flourished between 1943 and the mid-’50s. The movement effectively shifted the art world’s focus from Europe (specifically Paris) to New York in the postwar years. The paintings were seen widely in traveling exhibitions and through publications. In the wake of Abstract Expressionism, new generations of artists—both American and European—were profoundly marked by the breakthroughs made by the first generation, and went on to create their own important expressions based on, but not imitative of, those who forged the way.


The Glazier, 1940
Willem de Kooning (American, born The Netherlands, 1904–1997)
Oil on canvas


Untitled, ca. 1948–49
Jackson Pollock (American, 1912–1956)
Dripped ink and enamel on paper


DS 1958, 1958
David Smith (American, 1906–1965)
Spray and stenciled enamel on paper


The Achaemenid Persian empire

Fluted bowl, Achaemenid, reign of Darius I or II, 522–486 B.C. or 432–405 B.C.


Relief: two servants bearing food and drink, 358–338 B.C.; Achaemenid period, reign of Artaxerxes III
Excavated at Persepolis, southwestern Iran


Buddhism and Buddhist Art

The fifth and fourth centuries B.C. were a time of worldwide intellectual ferment. It was an age of great thinkers, such as Socrates and Plato, Confucius and Laozi. In India, it was the age of the Buddha, after whose death a religion developed that eventually spread far beyond its homeland.

Buddha Amoghasiddhi with Eight Bodhisattvas, ca. 1200–1250
Tibet (Central regions)
Distemper on cloth

Chinese Calligraphy

Calligraphy, or the art of writing, was the visual art form prized above all others in traditional China.

Fisherman, Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), ca. 1350
Wu Zhen (Chinese, 1280–1354)
Handscroll; ink on paper

Grazing Horse, dated 1932
Xu Beihong (Chinese, 1895–1953); Qi Baishi (Chinese, 1864–1957)
Hanging scroll; ink on paper


Art and Death in Medieval Byzantium

Dramatic illustrations of saintly deaths, as well as elaborate tombs featuring portraits of the deceased, were among the most powerful and persistent images in medieval Byzantium from the ninth to the fifteenth century. Such artistic monuments expressed both individual and communal ideas about death, and life after death.

Reliquary of the True Cross (Staurotheke), late 8th–early 9th century
Byzantine; Made in Constantinople
Cloisonné enamel, silver, silver-gilt, gold, niello


An Artisan’s Tomb in New Kingdom Egypt

Almost thirty-three centuries ago, a young man named Khonsu became a “servant in the Place of Truth”—a designation that identified members of the crew of artisans who carved and decorated the royal tombs of the New Kingdom.

Facsimile of a scene depicting the afterlife (Tomb of Sennedjem) (detail), ca. 1922
Charles K. Wilkinson (American, born Britain, 1897–1986)
Tempera on paper

Artist’s gridded sketch, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Hatshepsut, ca. 1479–1458 B.C.
Egyptian; From western Thebes
Limestone and ink


The Middle Kingdom (mid-Dynasty 11–Dynasty 13, ca. 2030–1640 B.C.) began when Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II reunited Upper and Lower Egypt, setting the stage for a second great flowering of Egyptian culture.

Statuette of a Hippopotamus, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 12, ca. 1981–1885 B.C.
Egyptian; Middle Egypt, Meir


The Aesthetic of the Sketch in Nineteenth-Century France

The making of esquisses, or preparatory oil sketches, as studies for finished paintings emerged in Italy during the sixteenth century. Widespread throughout Europe just a century later, the practice was disseminated by artists who trained in Italy, notably Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) and Charles Le Brun (1619–1690).

Portrait of a Woman with a Dog, ca. 1769
Jean Honoré Fragonard (French, 1732–1806)
Oil on canvas

Evening: Landscape with an Aqueduct, 1818
Théodore Gericault (French, 1791–1824)
Oil on canvas



Art Nouveau

From the 1880s until the First World War, western Europe and the United States witnessed the development of Art Nouveau (“New Art”). Taking inspiration from the unruly aspects of the natural world, Art Nouveau influenced art and architecture especially in the applied arts, graphic work, and illustration. Sinuous lines and “whiplash” curves were derived, in part, from botanical studies and illustrations of deep-sea organisms such as those by German biologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834–1919) in Kunstformen der Natur (Art Forms in Nature, 1899). Other publications, including Floriated Ornament (1849) by Gothic Revivalist Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812–1852) and The Grammar of Ornament (1856) by British architect and theorist Owen Jones (1809–1874), advocated nature as the primary source of inspiration for a generation of artists seeking to break away from past styles. The unfolding of Art Nouveau’s flowing line may be understood as a metaphor for the freedom and release sought by its practitioners and admirers from the weight of artistic tradition and critical expectations.

Maude Adams (1872–1953) as Joan of Arc, 1909
Alphonse Mucha (Czech, 1860–1939)
Oil on canvas


Anatomy in the Renaissance

Italian Renaissance artists became anatomists by necessity, as they attempted to refine a more lifelike, sculptural portrayal of the human figure. Indeed, until about 1500–1510, their investigations surpassed much of the knowledge of anatomy that was taught at the universities. Opportunities for direct anatomical dissection were very restricted during the Renaissance. Giorgio Vasari’s Lives of the Artists states that the great Florentine sculptor, painter, and printmaker Antonio Pollaiuolo (1431/32–1498) was the “first master to skin many human bodies in order to investigate the muscles and understand the nude in a more modern way.” Giving credence to Vasari’s claim, Pollaiuolo’s highly influential engraving of the Battle of Naked Men (17.50.99) displays the figures of the nude warriors with nearly flayed musculature, seen in fierce action poses and from various angles.

De humani corporis fabrica, 1555
Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564)
Rare printed book


Ancient Greek Colonization and Trade and their Influence on Greek Art

 Ancient Greek colonization began at an early date, during the so-called Geometric period of about 900 to 700 B.C.(74.51.965), when many seminal elements of ancient Greek society were also established, such as city-states, major sanctuaries, and the Panhellenic festivals. The Greek alphabet, inspired by the writing of the Phoenician sea traders, was developed and spread at this time. Architectural tile fragment, 6th century B.C.
Greek, Lydian; Excavated at Sardis
Terracotta with red and black painted decoration
Funerary relief, ca. 325–300 B.C.
Greek, South Italian, Tarentine

The Age of Süleyman “the Magnificent” (r. 1520–1566)

Under Süleyman, popularly known as “the Magnificent” or “the Lawmaker,” the Ottoman empire reached the apogee of its military and political power. Süleyman’s armies conquered Hungary, over which the Ottomans maintained control for over 150 years, and they advanced as far west as Vienna, threatening the Habsburgs. To the east, the Ottoman forces wrested control of Iraq from the Safavids of Iran. In the Mediterranean, their navy captured all the principal North African ports, and for a time the Ottoman fleet completely dominated the sea. By the end of Süleyman’s reign, Ottoman hegemony extended over a great portion of Europe, Asia, and Africa.


Along with geographic expansion, trade, economic growth, and tremendous cultural and artistic activity helped define the reign of Süleyman as a “Golden Age.” Developments occurred in every field of the arts; however, those in calligraphy, manuscript painting, textiles, and ceramics were particularly significant. Artists renowned by name include calligrapher Ahmad Karahisari as well as painters Shahquli and Kara Memi.

Hungarian-style Shield, ca. 1500–1550
Eastern European
Wood, leather, gesso, polychromy

Ornamental drawing of a dragon, mid-16th century; Ottoman
Attributed to Shah Quli
Turkey (Istanbul)
Ink, colors, and gold on paper


Cave Sculpture from the Karawari

Flowing through ranges of hills and surrounding swampland, the Karawari River is one of numerous tributaries of the great Sepik River, which drains into the north coast of New Guinea. In a series of caves and rock shelters along the upper reaches of the Karawari, the Ewa people kept a remarkable series of woodcarvings. Created and used by Ewa men during their lifetimes, the carvings were kept after their owner’s deaths. Preserved in the caves for generations, some of the carvings are between 200 and 400 years old, making them the oldest surviving examples of wood sculpture from New Guinea.

Male Figure, 16th–early 19th century
Inyai-Ewa people, Korewori River, Middle Sepik region, Papua New Guinea

All sourced from – met museum 

notes for research throughout semester 2

  • How has art evolved into what it is now?
  • Look and find more artists theories
  • Who is revolving design around art
  • What artists are doing to be more involved with design
  • Is there an evolution occurring for the “big brother theory”
  • Ask do people want more control in their design have more influences over others perspective
  • Take Darwin’s theory of evolution, this takes place on humanity however when it comes to a design like fashion this seems more of a recycle/refuse theory with added evolutions of style.
  • Look  through history and where fashion wise we are , recycling their tendencies and adding contemporary fixtures too, try to predict the next turn of style look into fashion week and journals.
  • Then look into the next apple breakthrough we have iPod/ipad whats next, or are they going to have numbers continuing after the original product.
  • We have touch basically the new interactions and technologies just involve as much senses as they can, therefore the person feels as much involvement and control over a device/object/subject as they can.
  • We have    touch- touchscreen, sound- speaking to a device, sight, 3D revolution, whats next? taste and smell – will we be able to smell the perfume of whom we are talking to through a screen, will we taste the recipe we are researching?
  • With all these technologies why not eliminate human contact all together?
  • technology takes human contact away from most things now, online shopping, banking, even sex can be controlled through technology.
  • Through the “big brother theory” can we resume human contact without letting ti illuminate it completely.
  • Getting human involvement back to design we create the evolution of design itself.
  • (the big brother theory – the day and age that we are living in is having to have as much interaction over technology as possible, phones you speak to, to control them, t.v.s that are 3D to involve you in the screen, and the fascination off controlling people and their actions and the results that occur from this just taken from such shows as example big brother. Thus creating the evolution of art bringing the recent problems society faces and creating the evolution of bringing contemporary art as a solution for this.Giving back the control and involvement of human behaviour through design without letting technology take over – the big brother theory.

Art meets design

L.A. Designers and Artists Collaborate on a Dreamy Exhibition

Participating designers had an unusual opportunity to design with no constraints or parameters, unlike most popular designer showhouses.

Fine art and interior design marry at this season’s “dreamSCAPE,” a conceptual design exhibition hosted by the L.A. Mart Design Center (LAMDC) in conjunction with LOOK Gallery. The exhibit showcases the work of seven top Los Angeles design firms, each paired with local fine artists.

Staged below the gallery’s lofty 20-foot ceilings, the exhibition features a no holds barred series of ethereal designer installations that incorporate furnishings, photography, works on canvas, found objects, and more. The seven unrelated spaces are different and diverse though tied together by the central dream-like theme.

Participating designers had an unusual opportunity to design with no constraints or parameters, unlike most popular designer showhouses, throughout which continuity between designed spaces is required. “dreamSCAPE” encouraged each design team to interpret the given space from their personal perspective, as an interpretation or design statement about the subject of the art.

“We are in a unique position to showcase and support this type of uninhibited creativity here at LAMDC,” said Jeff Sampson, vice president of marketing, L.A. Mart Design Center. “Provocative and aspirational, the dream-like spaces serve to engage the spectator in the design experience, offering a glimpse to the pure vision of  the superior design talent and artistry of fashioning interiors as interpretive expressions of our inner selves.”

Installation designers include Becket Cook, Christopher Gaona, Inc. Interiors, Dan Vickery + Lonni Paul Design, Franklin Studios, Inc., Shimoda Design Group, Stephen Pappas Interiors, and Woodson & Rummerfield’s House of Design. Featured artists include Jorge Albertella, Claressinka Anderson, Mattia Biagi, Carol Bishop, Joe Davidson, Jimi Gleason, and Bruna Stude.

The exhibition is currently on display and runs through December 3 in the L.A. Mart Design Center’s LOOK Gallery.

link to source




The evolution of art


IF YOU WANT TO IMMERSE YOURSELF in the art world, there’s no splashier way to do so than as an eager collector, is this true?

With my research through out semester 1 and 2 maybe there is going to be a change in the art worlds perspective, ( if you want to immerse yourself in the art world become a collector) i disagree a see a change in the future why observe the art when one can be the art or observe and manipulate the art.

Take the non functional objects and create the objective perspective, the evolution of art is amongst us.!

Through out technology evolution we now have interaction with technology devices such as having conversations with our phones telling them what to do and how is the weather today? t.v.s now let you watch what ever you want when ever you can also connects you to the internet no need for laptops anymore, speaking of laptops emails have emerged from letters resembling the handwritten personal kind to fee to face idea chats making it seem closer to the people you are connecting with, and then there is the newest fascinating result of technological evolution the touch screen so we have total interaction with our devices, and there is now screens that simulate water and fish swimming in the screen and when you touch the screen the water ripples to simulate actual simulation. With all these new developments in just technology why hash art yet come to this evolution?

We begin with drawings found on the cave walls from the earliest foundation of man, moving to the oil painting before the camera was invented, then paintings of landscapes and scenes which brings the form of entertainment to the art culture. This art tradition sill continues today with it moving into the 3D evolution to bring the art to life with contemporary art and media lighting shows to make art seem more interactive. The next step or do we continue down this the strangest the best art where as my opinion the more pointless the more famous. How about we now become the art human behaviour, perception and variables of design and art it seems the next step for art evolution is time to be evolved, without entering the drama of art performance such as mime or dancing.

Within my research i am going to evolve the way we think about art and deign and how they can combine to create the evolution of human perception to art.

out of place



By Karin Nelson
Photograph by Hannah Whitaker
November 2011

ALEX ZACHARY’S GARDEN-LEVEL GALLERY on Manhattan’s East 77th Street, just off Fifth Avenue, is not, as one would expect by its address, an elegant space. “It’s hideous,” Zachary admits. “Everything about it is wrong.” But for the 28-year-old former staffer at Gavin Brown’s Enterprise, who has a slightly twisted take on the art world, it’s a fitting home. When he decided almost two years ago to buck the market’s downward trend and open his own place in the least hip area he could think of—the posh Upper East Side—“the goal was to find something out of place,” he explains. “Because we would be out of place.” Thus, the oddly configured, outdated duplex, formerly owned by furniture importer and consultant George Beylerian. In the late Seventies, it was considered a pillar of chic, regularly profiled in design magazines. “It looked really good,” Zachary says. “It looks significantly less good now.”

Deciding not to touch a thing (“I don’t know where you’d even begin,” he says), Zachary has let the space dictate the shows, which have tended toward the unconventional: Ken Okiishi’s 72-­minute film pitting images of contemporary Berlin against Woody Allen’s Manhattan; Rainer Ganahl’s interviews with Jewish New Yorkers who escaped World War II; Amelie von Wulffen’s watercolors of fruits and vegetables fornicating. He recently exhibited the paintings of Mark van Yetter, a young Istanbul-­based artist who once ran a record shop in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. In February, Zachary plans an exhibit of new work by Lutz Bacher, a West Coast appropriation artist who had a retrospective at MoMA PS1 in 2009. “Most shows would look better elsewhere,” he concedes, “so you have to think about the kinds of work to which this space adds value.”


A beginning for semester 2


  • semester 1 learning agreement
  • Looking into modern art and their insights and methodologies on their work, and see whether they can be applied to a more practical design rather than just aesthetics.
  • I have been interested in looking at art and whether there is a place (or need) for functional art. I am also very interested as an interior designer about the boundaries and relationships that exist between art (as a nonfunctional element) and the built environment (which had more clearly defined functional aspects to it).In looking at these issues I hope to better understand design and the balance for functional and non-functional criteria), and how this balance may lead to “better” design.
  • In my research I am investigating the work of two artists who have developed a fascinating philosophical basis for their work which has a resonance with my own subject area of study. They are called Los Carpinteros and this is their philosophy defined “Los Carpinteros incorporate aspects of architecture, design,  and sculpture to create installations and drawings which seek to negotiate the divide between inhabited spaces, social consciousness, and non-functional art objects.”

As a result of the end of semester 1 designs, i came across the results can contemporary art design become the new entertainment? can non functional theories become the new evolution of design and the entertainment of the 21st century is now the design and how it influences behavioural perception.

to start with semester 2 research I am going to begin with the basics of behavioural design and how design influences a persons behaviour beginning with

  • semiotics
  • colours
  • landscaping
  • word methods

aside that I am still going to look into contemporary art, and carry on looking into los carpenters theories but also search for artists and deigns that also are looking into th field of the wist on perception in design using such theories and props from contemporary arts or other non functional objects.

summaries from semester 1 work


Literature/Contextual review

  • strengths
  • great introduction and you set the scene well with your underlying thoughts that aim to tease us about what could be a very exciting project development.
  • well presented work with a contextualize graphic environment
  • On the whole  well written and a good use of referencing to locate the research data.
  • good evidence of the research feeding your practice – well done

areas to improve/develop

  • I am a little worried that some of the messaging is confused. for example i have no issue with the question about function versus art but wonder about the need to question this in the context of ever decreasing space. The two subjects seem quite disparate and unrelated to the developments of your argument. So try and stay focussed on more central arguments.
  • Too much reliance of web-based reading material in your bibliography.Make sure you find published materials in future and if you get into a position where material os hard to find try rephrasing the question and seek help from LWIS staff (Linda Wadsworth).
  • Try and take work in progress to the tutorials to get advice on crafting the document in time.

assessment criteria

  • ability to apply research methodologies      16(25%)
  • ability to develop analysis, critical position and argument    16(25%)
  • ability to draw conclusions to the work    17(25%)
  • quality of presentation and communication    17(25%)
  • indicative mark    66(100%)

note the weighting of assignment 1 is 40%


reflective diary


  • use of blog to record research and enveloping personal thoughts as the semester progresses are developing well.
  • great layout and visual style for the blog and clever the way you link visitors to the honours portfolio.
  • interesting that the archives have text titles to identify posts and that the home page is all visual representations of the final work for semester 1. Not sure if this was intentional but it certainly develops a sense of hierarchy in the presentation of your work.
  • some great quotes and references to work with
  • some really useful areas of research being sourced to inspire practice work.
  • personal comments are insightful and reflect well your growing knowledge of the subject
  • well done for including the learning agreement and your presentation within the blog
  • well done for including design work so we can see how the research is directly feeding the design process
  • as work progresses your search starts to become more focussed as you need answers to feed the specifics of your project
  • use of archiving works well to reduce linearity of the blog
  • overall a strong sense of engagement in your research and reflection of the subject.

areas to improve/develop

  • use the links section o connect to the web-based materials you have sourced in your research
  • when incorporating visuals (for example honours) remember to save files as screen resolution to speed up navigation
  • a need to rename some of your categories as they better reflect the context of the research study area
  • should have included a bibliography
  • layout of blog is sometimes messy – avoid misalignment in the blog layout

assessment criteria

  • ability to build upon key issues that have been raised in the learning agreement    22(25%)
  • ability to identify connections between the students evolving practices and the practice of others   22(25%)
  • ability to identify relevant research methodologies and application in producing the reflective diary    18(25%)
  • ability to reflect upon issues raised and the progression made by the student over the semester   20(25%)

indicative mark:      82(100%)

note the weighing of assignment 2 is 60%


interior design practice 1 – double module


  • learning agreement – well written and focused learning agreement. You do well to summarise the sections of thinking engaged in to develop your practice. Sets the scene for good works to come.
  • practice proposal controversial and powerful topic for the design proposal.
  • work already developing a sense of drama, connection to the modern world and questioning approach that fits in well with an MA study.
  • life as art could be a great launch pad for the whole MA development and there is still potential with the project if you are willing to get deeper under its skin.


areas for improvement:

  • learning agreement – none
  • practice proposal – whilst you have managed to pull out of the bag a grand finale to the semester there is need for more depth. You do not like the medium of the sketch book and tend to develop ideas a lost immediately you complete and area of research and get started with an idea.
  • instead try sketching ideas that involve people centric discussions with sketches that explore the subject from the user’s perspective. also do some research as ways to present a concept.

Just to clarify

What is Interior Design?

Many new home buyers make the mistake of confusing interior design with interior decoration, but these two disciplines are worlds apart. While it is true that design did naturally evolve from decoration, the technical know-how and skill set required for a designer are far more complex and complicated when compared to simple decoration. For instance, a designer must not only have an impeccable sense of style like a decorator, but he must also have an intimate understanding of architecture as well. Not to mention a degree.

For these reasons, interior designers receive highly competitive salaries that start at around twenty-five thousand pounds with an average salary of about thirty-five thousand pounds. As you might expect, designers rely on experience and reputation and they are often only as good as their last project.

The two most popular kinds of interior design are residential and commercial. Residential design often focuses on bathrooms or kitchens or rooms that are frequently renovated. But simple decoration that includes new drapes or interior wooden Blinds or any number of improvements is also an integral part of interior design.

Commercial interior designers, on the other hand, often focus on office or workspace design, retail design or furniture design. Part of the appeal of this profession is that it offers qualified professionals a multitude of career options. A designer can work in large and growing fields like residential designer, or he can choose to specialize in something like hospitality or healthcare design.

And since many interior designers are also registered architects, they can pull double duty as both the architect and the designer. Though the average designer does work for a company, freelance designers who work on contract jobs are also quite popular and earn comparable salaries.

Interior Designer or Decorator?

Interior design is one of the fastest growing professions in the home improvement industry. Unlike decorators, designers are trained professionals who often have a degree in either design or architecture. They are also often misunderstood. The reason for this is simple: people don’t know the difference between what they do and what a decorator does.

What is the difference? To begin with, a designer must have a licence, which means that he must answer to a licencing board. This simple fact offers security and protection to the client, since he has some legal recourse if the designer makes a major mistake.

And while it is true that designers do focus on some of the same things as decorators, like Jaloezieen window blinds, fabrics and finishes, they must also take account of lighting issues and building codes. In fact, most of the work that a designer does has to do with finding the perfect arrangement based on the architecture of the room and precise measurements, rather than simply prettying it up.

In the end, decorating is a talent or a knack, while design combines talent with technical know-how, education and experience. So, why are decorators still more popular? Well, when homeowners finally find out exactly what it is designers exactly do, they often assume they won’t be interested in small products. This is simply not the case.

Believe it or not, most interior designers work on small residential projects. And while they do charge quite a bit more than decorators, most clients believe that they are worth it. As we said, a designer is a licenced professional like a doctor or lawyer and his technical abilities are far beyond those of a simple decorator.